Frozen Shoulder

A frozen shoulder is a painful and stiff condition affecting a middle-aged person. It affects women more than men with a higher risk in diabetic patients.

The pathology lies in the shoulder capsule whereby it thickens becoming stiff and tight.

There are 3 stages in Frozen Shoulder:

Stage 1: Freezing – Increasing pain with gradual loss of motion

Stage 2: Frozen – Reducing pain but stiffness remains

Stage 3: Thawing – Improving motion with strength

The pathological mechanism is a structural narrowing in the subacromial space. A multiplicity of potential etiologies makes the diagnosis more difficult; it is established by the history and physical examination and can be confirmed with x-rays, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. 

Treatment can be initiated with pain management and physiotherapy and if the pain is much more severe, steroids and local anesthesia injection can be done. In some cases, arthroscopic decompression will be the solution to reduce the impingement and subsequent frozen shoulder.